Beyond Traditional Measurement of Mortality after Injury
Jeffrey A Claridge,
MD, MS, FACS,William H
Leukhardt, MD, Joseph F Golob, MD,
Andrew M McCoy, BS, Mark A Malangoni,
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term mortality after trauma, and to determine risk factors and possible disparities related to mortality after hospital discharge.
STUDY DESIGN: Level I trauma
center registry data from a 6-year period (2000 through 2005) were linked to
patient electronic medical records, the National Death Index with cause of
death codes, and census data using geographic information science (GIS)
methodologies. Census data provided supplemental demographic and socioeconomic
information from patient neighborhoods.
RESULTS: The hospital mortality rate for 15,285 patients was 3.3%, and mortality after discharge was 4.8%. Overall mortality for the study period was 8.1% (average follow-up, 2.8 years, 1-year mortality, 5.4%). Mortality after discharge was related to the initial injury in 33%, possibly related in 23%, and unrelated in 44% of patients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent predictors of hospital mortality were age, Injury Severity Score, gunshot injury, significant head injury, fall, and spinal cord injury. In contrast, independent risk factors formortality after discharge were age, hospital length of stay, discharge from the hospital to a locale other than home, and the presence of spinal cord injury. Intoxication at hospital admission and injury due to a gunshot wound or motor vehicle collision were protective for late mortality. Bivariate analysis of census data demonstrated that lower socioeconomic status was associated with improved hospital survival, and non-native status was associated with mortality after discharge.
CONCLUSIONS: There is significant mortality attributable to trauma for up to 1 year after hospita discharge.
"Reprinted from Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 2010
May;210(5):788-94. Claridge JA, Leukhardt WH, Golob JF, McCoy AM, Malangoni AM.
Moving Beyond Traditional Measurement of Mortality After Injury: Evaluation of
Risks for Late Death.
(C) 2010, with permission from Elsevier."